Wednesday, February 25, 2009

crossover linux professional ( run .EXE Ffiles on linux)

CrossOver Linux Professional allows you to install your favorite Windows office applications in Linux. In particular CrossOver Linux Professional supports Microsoft Office 97, 2000, XP and 2003 which includes Word, Excel, Outlook and PowerPoint. CrossOver Linux Professional also supports Microsoft Visio, Lotus Notes, Adobe Photoshop, and several other packages. 

CrossOver Linux Professional delivers a complete web browsing experience by making the full range of Windows Web Browser Plugins available on Linux. Plugins are programs that extend the capabilities of a browser or email client -- for example, to play movies or view Word documents. 

CrossOver works by running the actual Windows applications. Because no CPU emulation is involved they run at full speed on your system. They also integrate with your mail client and desktop environment, making it possible to view Word, Excel or PowerPoint attachments, or to open these file types from the KDE or Gnome desktop or file managers. CrossOver Linux Professional further acts as a bridge between the native browser (e.g. Mozilla) and Windows plugins (e.g. QuickTime) so that you can use them in your favorite browser.

Tuesday, February 24, 2009

program to inter lines in files in read and write the lines for file!

int main()
ofstream fout;"gne.txt");
char ch[50];
int len,count=0,sp=0,line=0;

fout<<"guru nanak dev engg. college \n ludhiana \n bracnh \n d2IT ";


ifstream fin;"gne.txt");




cout< len=strlen(ch);

for(int i=0;i<=len;i++)

{ if(ch[i]=='  ')


cout"number  of  spaces"  sp;

cout"number of  charater" count;



cout<<" \n No.lines= " lines;


return (0);


Sunday, February 15, 2009


What is Lex?

Lex is officially known as a "Lexical Analyser".

It's main job is to break up an input stream into more usable elements.

Or in, other words, to identify the "interesting bits" in a text file.

For example, if you are writing a compiler for the C programming language, the symbols { } ( ) ; all have significance on their own. The letter a usually appears as part of a keyword or variable name, and is not interesting on it's own. Instead, we are interested in the whole word. Spaces and newlines are completely uninteresting, and we want to ignore them completely, unless they appear within quotes "like this"

All of these things are handled by the Lexical Analyser.

What is Yacc?

Yacc is officially known as a "parser".

It's job is to analyse the structure of the input stream, and operate of the "big picture".

In the course of it's normal work, the parser also verifies that the input is syntactically sound.

Consider again the example of a C-compiler. In the C-language, a word can be a function name or a variable, depending on whether it is followed by a ( or a = There should be exactly one } for each { in the program.

YACC stands for "Yet Another Compiler Compiler". This is because this kind of analysis of text files is normally associated with writing compilers.

However, as we will see, it can be applied to almost any situation where text-based input is being used.

For example, a C program may contain something like:

        {                 int int;                 int = 33;                 printf("int: %d\n",int);         }

In this case, the lexical analyser would have broken the input sream into a series of "tokens", like this:

        {         int         int         ;         int         =         33         ;         printf         (         "int: %d\n"         ,         int         )         ;         }

Note that the lexical analyser has already determined that where the keyword int appears within quotes, it is really just part of a litteral string. It is up to the parser to decide if the token int is being used as a keyword or variable. Or it may choose to reject the use of the name int as a variable name. The parser also ensures that each statement ends with a ; and that the brackets balance.

Lex and yacc are tools for building programs. Their output is itself code, which needs to be fed into a compiler; typically, additional user code is added to use the code generated by lex and/or yacc. Some simple programs can get by on almost no additional code; others use a parser as a tiny portion of a much larger and more complicated program.

Wednesday, February 11, 2009

Internet Protocol

The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite, also referred

DEFINITION - The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. Each computer (known as a host) on the Internet has at least one IP address that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the Internet. When you send or receive data (for example, an e-mail note or a Web page), the message gets divided into little chunks called packets. Each of these packets contains both the sender's Internet address and the receiver's address. Any packet is sent first to a gateway computer that understands a small part of the Internet. The gateway computer reads the destination address and forwards the packet to an adjacent gateway that in turn reads the destination address and so forth across the Internet until one gateway recognizes the packet as belonging to a computer within its immediate neighborhood or domain. That gateway then forwards the packet directly to the computer whose address is specified.

Because a message is divided into a number of packets, each packet can, if necessary, be sent by a different route across the Internet. Packets can arrive in a different order than the order they were sent in. The Internet Protocol just delivers them. It's up to another protocol, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to put them back in the right order

IP is a connectionless protocol, which means that there is no continuing connection between the end points that are communicating. Each packet that travels through the Internet is treated as an independent unit of data without any relation to any other unit of data. (The reason the packets do get put in the right order is because of TCP, the connection-oriented protocol that keeps track of the packet sequence in a message.) In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communication model, IP is in layer 3, the Networking Layer.

The most widely used version of IP today is Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4). However, IP Version 6 (IPv6) is also beginning to be supported. IPv6 provides for much longer addresses and therefore for the possibility of many more Internet users. IPv6 includes the capabilities of IPv4 and any server that can support IPv6 packets can also support IPv4 packets.

The Internet Protocol Suite

The Internet Protocol Suite (commonly known as TCP/IP) is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It is named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard.

Tuesday, February 10, 2009

nine UML Diagrams

UML Diagrams

The underlying premise of UML is that no one diagram can capture the different elements of a system in its entirety. Hence, UML is made up of nine diagrams that can be used to model a system at different points of time in the software life cycle of a system. The nine UML diagrams are:

  • Use case diagram: The use case diagram is used to identify the primary elements and processes that form the system. The primary elements are termed as "actors" and the processes are called "use cases." The use case diagram shows which actors interact with each use case.
  • Class diagram: The class diagram is used to refine the use case diagram and define a detailed design of the system. The class diagram classifies the actors defined in the use case diagram into a set of interrelated classes. The relationship or association between the classes can be either an "is-a" or "has-a" relationship. Each class in the class diagram may be capable of providing certain functionalities. These functionalities provided by the class are termed "methods" of the class. Apart from this, each class may have certain "attributes" that uniquely identify the class.
  • Object diagram: The object diagram is a special kind of class diagram. An object is an instance of a class. This essentially means that an object represents the state of a class at a given point of time while the system is running. The object diagram captures the state of different classes in the system and their relationships or associations at a given point of time.
  • State diagram: A state diagram, as the name suggests, represents the different states that objects in the system undergo during their life cycle. Objects in the system change states in response to events. In addition to this, a state diagram also captures the transition of the object's state from an initial state to a final state in response to events affecting the system.
  • Activity diagram: The process flows in the system are captured in the activity diagram. Similar to a state diagram, an activity diagram also consists of activities, actions, transitions, initial and final states, and guard conditions.
  • Sequence diagram: A sequence diagram represents the interaction between different objects in the system. The important aspect of a sequence diagram is that it is time-ordered. This means that the exact sequence of the interactions between the objects is represented step by step. Different objects in the sequence diagram interact with each other by passing "messages".
  • Collaboration diagram: A collaboration diagram groups together the interactions between different objects. The interactions are listed as numbered interactions that help to trace the sequence of the interactions. The collaboration diagram helps to identify all the possible interactions that each object has with other objects.
  • Component diagram: The component diagram represents the high-level parts that make up the system. This diagram depicts, at a high level, what components form part of the system and how they are interrelated. A component diagram depicts the components culled after the system has undergone the development or construction phase.
  • Deployment diagram: The deployment diagram captures the configuration of the runtime elements of the application. This diagram is by far most useful when a system is built and ready to be deployed.

UML Diagram Classification—Static, Dynamic, and Implementation

A software system can be said to have two distinct characteristics: a structural, "static" part and a behavioral, "dynamic" part. In addition to these two characteristics, an additional characteristic that a software system possesses is related to implementation. Before we categorize UML diagrams into each of these three characteristics, let us take a quick look at exactly what these characteristics are.

  • Static: The static characteristic of a system is essentially the structural aspect of the system. The static characteristics define what parts the system is made up of.
  • Dynamic: The behavioral features of a system; for example, the ways a system behaves in response to certain events or actions are the dynamic characteristics of a system.
  • Implementation: The implementation characteristic of a system is an entirely new feature that describes the different elements required for deploying a system.

The UML diagrams that fall under each of these categories are:

  • Static
    • Use case diagram
    • Class diagram
  • Dynamic
    • Object diagram
    • State diagram
    • Activity diagram
    • Sequence diagram
    • Collaboration diagram
  • Implementation
    • Component diagram
    • Deployment diagram

windows is uninstall , ubuntu is in some drive but ubuntu is not boot up ??

>>Put LIVE Disk in driver
>> click on try ubuntu
>> open terminal
>> write commmands
$ sudo grub
grub> root (hd0,6)
setup (hd0)

then restart