Sunday, November 22, 2009

LIVE PROJECT ON gillmapping .


The Department of civil engineering,Guru Nank Dev engineering college,ludhiana is organinsing an event of “gillmapping” on 22/11/2009(sunday) at 9:00 a.m. For preparing digital map of gill village with the help of nss unit,association of civil engineers & Linux User Group(LUG) Ludhiana with following objectives.
(a)To help Govt./NGos for their social welfare schemes.
(b)To help our community such as traffic police,cabs etc in track locating.
(c)To help physically challenged people(blind) navigate on their own
(d)To help grow industrial business in the area of “digital mapping” and to provide scope of placements for students.
We plan to start this project from gill village and thereafter the whole city will be covered. An inaugral function is being planned at Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College on 22/11/09 at 9:00A.M. To mark the start of this project and make everyone aware of it.

Open Street Map

Open Free maps are Free editable maps. These are made with the help of GPS by anyone at anytime. These maps allows us to view,edit and use geographical data in the collaborative way from anywhere on the globe. Like in some areas, We have some buildings and street being built all the time and with the help of OSM we can always locate this location of sneakers on the ground and can get up-to-date data.
More important thing is that information is free. It will be owned by the community- not by any big corporate which means it can be accessed by anyone,anytime and anywhere and can also edit it accordingly. Open street map(OSM) maps are more accurate then anything else on the market in many parts of world depending upon awareness and participation of community. By using OSM we will come up with new applications and winning innovations around the information we recorded.
Maps prepared by OSM have already Started In US and is new in India. These maps

(a)Help to Grow the industrial business in the area of digital mapping and provided the scope of placements of the students in the same area.
(b)Help as track locater to the community such as Traffic Police,Cabs etc.
(c)Help as a navigator for the physically challenged people(Blind).

Department of civil engineering at GNDEC Ludhiana is going to prepare such maps. Initially we are starting from Gill Village and Our target is to Prepare maps of ludhiana city. All the data collected by this will be given away free for others to use.
For collecting the data of Gill Village our Students will carry GPS to different part of gill village and will record the information and then will upload and then this will be provided to the community for the use.
We can get further information regarding open street maps from below link
Faculty In charge:- prof.(Dr.) H.S. Rai HOD,Department of Civil Engineering Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College Ludhiana(Pb) India


                           GILL became first village to have digital map




Announce your event at least 10 days ahead our time . And our group an select weekend for this event . So all are free at end of weekend on 22,nov 2009 (sunday). And event is started at 9.00am.


Our place is for mapping is gill Village and some near about areas.

 Gettind Started

Our event can be started at 9.00am with Introduction about openstreetmap and GPS techonogy. Dr.H.S.Rai given a small presentation on GPS and open street map . And some other respected guests also introduce about the that techonegy and share our views .
My dear friend Daljeet Singh Pathania student of IT branch of our college also give presntation .
After this there is Small tea party . After the party all of students is ready to go for Gill Village . And the students are divided into group of 2 student with one GPS system .

GILL became first village to have digital map

Poster & Flyers we can prepare a posters and Flyers for to publices our events. And display our posters at gill village and our college camps and also in news papers.
We can also promote our events on Internet .

List of Members

NAME                     CLASS  GROUP
Daljeet Singh Pathania   D3 IT   L.U.G
Jagdeep Singh Malhi      D3IT    L.U.G
Aditi Arora              D2CSE   L.U.G
Akashdeep singh          D4 CE   A.C.E
Aman Shegal              D4 CE   A.C.E 
Amanpreet Singh          D2CSE   L.U.G
Amrinder Singh           D2IT    L.U.G
Ankur Chauhan            D2ECE   L.U.G
Anurag Chaudry           D2CSE   L.U.G
biplamdeep singh                 A.C.E
Chandeep Singh           D2CSE   L.U.G
Davinder Kumar           D2CSE   L.U.G
Gurinder Singh           D3 IT  
Guriqbal Singh           D2CSE   L.U.G
Gurjyot Singh            D2CSE   L.U.G
Hargurdeep singh                 A.C.E
Harkaran singh           D2 CE   A.C.E
HarmanpreetSingh         D1ECE   L.U.G
Ismitpal singh           D3CE    A.c.E
Jaswinder singh          D4 CE   A.C.E
Mandeep Sngh             D3IT  
Mokshan abrol            D4 CE   A.C.E
Parveen Kumar            D2IT    L.U.G
Pranavanand              D2CSE   L.U.G
Priyanka Sharma          D2IT    L.U.G
Sandeep                  D2PE    L.U.G
Shaina                   D2CSE   L.U.G
Simarjeet singh          D4 CE   A.C.E
Sumit                    D2ECE   L.U.G
Tanpreet singh           D4 CE   A.C.E
Vikas                    D2CSE   L.U.G
Preeti Jaiin             D4CE    A.C.E
Gurmeher Singh           D2CE  

At End

At the end of day we can collect our mapping data from the GPS system and transfer to computer ,then using JMOS software we upload the data about gillmapping on


For collecting the data of Gill Village our Students will carry GPS to different part of gill village and will record the information and then will upload and then this will be provided to the community for the use.
and enjoy our new expereince and many of feel happy to doing first time work on live project AND also THANKS to Our teachers ,groups member students and other respected persons .

Saturday, November 21, 2009

Worshop on FOSS in college Genesis

In 20,Nov 2009 our college genesis is begin so Linux User Group (LUG ) conduct two events
Workshop on FOSS & LINUX QUIZ . First off all our workshop is begin at 9.00am and Dr. H.S.Rai give Presentation on FOSS.

Introduction to FOSS:-
FOSS is an open source software that is being used n linux operating system . A seminar on FOSS was held ,that was presented by Dr. Hardeep Singh Rai. He was presenting many effective information on open source software and systems specially on foss. According to them with the help of these open source softwares and system we can developed a new system that is according to our requirements and needs. Through , the help of the open source softwares we can develop our country in many assepts of information technology.

There was a open discussion on FOSS . Dr.Hardeep Singh Rai and Ajay Shiv Sharma was the in discussion . They were presented their views about these concepts that how to use these open source systems and modify them according to our needs.
Also there was a questioner on foss and linux operating system. In this module there is question about open source system and the audience presented there was trying to answer these questions and also there was gift on behalf of these questions. We gain knowledge about these open source system a lot.

Then, after the seminar on foss ,a workshop on drupal will conducted . In this workshop we work on Drupal (open soure) .Our lecturer Ajay Shiv Sharma was giving a lecture on this that how we work on drupal. He also giving information about DRUPAL which is also an open source software and we make a wonderful website by using drupal. In this module we install Drupal in our machines with some commands that are related to it .We follow the instructions of our lecturer and install it in our machines.
Through drupal we develop websites which is very effective and it includes all the content that a website can have.
We can learn how to make websites through there systems.
There was group of some students that work according to the instructions of lecturer that can handle all this work .


Linux quiz:-
At the end of this module of workshop, a quiz on linux and FOSS can de presented . In this quiz questions wiil be asked from the student who attend this whole module of linux. Many of students can participate in this quiz. Special prizes will be given to those students who win this quiz and also those students who work well in work shop any this community .

At end we are deeply thankful to our lecturers Ajay Shiv Sharma and Dr. Hardeep Singh Rai . With the help our teacher we succeeded in our goal of informing students about the open source system.

Saturday, November 14, 2009

How To Compile A Linux Kernel - on ubuntu?

First I prefer to do all the steps here as the root user. So if you haven't already created a root login, you should do so now:
#sudo passwd root

Afterwards, log in as root:

Then update :
#apt-get update

Then we install all needed packages like this:
#apt-get install kernel-package libncurses5-dev fakeroot wget bzip2

Download The Kernel Sources 

Next we download our desired kernel to /usr/src. Go to and select the kernel you want to install, e.g. linux- (you can find all 2.6 kernels here: Then you can download it to /usr/src like this:

#cd /usr/src

 Then we unpack the kernel sources:

#tar xjf linux-
#ln -s linux- linux
#cd /usr/src/linux

Configure The Kernel

It's a good idea to use the configuration of your current working kernel as a basis for your new kernel. Therefore we copy the existing configuration to /usr/src/linux:

#cp /boot/config-`uname -r` ./.config

Then we run
#make menuconfig

which brings up the kernel configuration menu. Go to Load an Alternate Configuration File and choose .config (which contains the configuration of your current working kernel) as the configuration file:

Then browse through the kernel configuration menu and make your choices. When you are finished and select Exit, answer the following question (Do you wish to save your new kernel configuration?) with Yes:

Build The Kernel

To build the kernel, execute these two commands:
#make-kpkg clean
#fakeroot make-kpkg --initrd --append-to-version=-custom kernel_image kernel_headers

Now be patient, the kernel compilation can take some hours, depending on your kernel configuration and your processor speed.

Install The New Kernel

After the successful kernel build, you can find two .deb packages in the /usr/src directory.
#cd /usr/src
#ls -l

On my test system they were called linux-image- (which contains the actual kernel) and linux-headers- (which contains files needed if you want to compile additional kernel modules later on). I install them like this:

#dpkg -i linux-image-
#dpkg -i linux-headers-

That's it. You can check /boot/grub/menu.lst now, you should find two stanzas for your new kernel there:
#vi /boot/grub/menu.lst
The stanzas that were added on my test system see on this file.

Now reboot the system:
#shutdown -r now

If everything goes well, it should come up with the new kernel. You can check if it's really using your new kernel by running
#uname -r

This should display something like
If the system doesn't start, restart it, and when you see this:

Thursday, November 5, 2009


LDAP, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, is an Internet protocol that email and other programs use to look up information from a server.
 LDAP is an application protocol for querying and modifying directory services running over TCP/IP.
A directory is a set of objects with attributes organized in a logical and hierarchical manner. A simple example is the telephone directory, which consists of a list of names (of either persons or organizations) organized alphabetically, with each name having an address and phone number associated with it.

Sunday, October 18, 2009


Twitter is a free social networking and micro-blogging service that enables its users to send and read messages known as tweets. Tweets are text-based posts of up to 140characters displayed on the author's profile page and delivered to the author's subscribers who are known as followers. Senders can restrict delivery to those in their circle of friends or, by default, allow open access. Users can send and receive tweets via the Twitter website,   Short Message Service (SMS) or external applications. While the service, itself, costs nothing to use, accessing it through SMS may incur phone service provider fees.

Sunday, October 4, 2009


What Is Unicode?

  • It is the international standard whose goal is to specify a code matching every character needed by every written human language to a single code point (integer). Unicode Consortium ( - a non-profit organization founded to develop, extend and promote use of the Unicode Standard - specifies the representation of text in modern software products and standards.
  • It is the international standard that includes support for all major scripts of the World and is adopted by all current major computer operating systems (OS). This solves a major problem for creators of texts, as it is now possible to fully transcribe texts in multiple languages without requiring ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) transliterations, special fonts or browsing software. Enabling it also takes care of both left-to-right and right-to-left scripts.
  • Unicode has become an industry standard. Microsoft software uses Unicode at its core. Hence, whether we realize it or not, we are using Unicode already!
  • Indian (Indic) languages: it provides support for many Indic scripts including Gurmukhi

What are advantages of using Unicode for Gurmukhi?

With a Unicode compatible computer system you can:
  • Search the entire web in Gurmukhi as you can do now for English. Major search engines already support Unicode Gurmukhi.
  • Create programs in Gurmukhi.
  • Have your web page titles and text in Gurmukhi.
  • If you have a Unicode Gurmukhi keyboard installed on your computer, you may create the "message" of your email to us in Gurmukhi (in conjunction with the "Contact Us" feature of our website).
  • Also, if you have a Unicode Gurmukhi keyboard installed on your computer, you may create your "message" while using our "Tell-A-Friend" feature provided the computer of your friend you are sending the message to is Unicode compatible, otherwise his/her browser will not display it correctly.
  • Sort and organize data on your entire computer with ease.
  • Exchange data with other users without having to worry about specific fonts, confusion or data loss; and avoid the hassles of upper-case lower-case and spacing problems that happen when many available non-Unicode Gurmukhi fonts are used. For example, if a Chinese guy in China opens a Gurmukhi document, it will open it as Gurmukhi document and not as Chinese.
  • Name files and folders using Gurmukhi.
  • Documents and web-pages made with Unicode text, when viewed with an appropriate web-browser on a computer with support for Unicode, will always be viewed in the right script even if the font in which web-pages are made is not installed into the system (just as English text is always English, even if the font in which it is made is missing). 

What are disadvantages of using Unicode for Gurmukhi?

Although Unicode is a good solution for Gurmukhi, some minor disadvantages are as follows:
  • People with older computers may not take full advantage of this new international standard.
  • Not all features of Gurmukhi (particularly the older Gurmukhi used in the Bani) can be represented yet. However, this is not a problem for modern Punjabi.
  • Using Unicode Gurmukhi requires some readjustment in the way it is approached in comparison to font-based Gurmukhi. For example, you may have to use a different keyboard layout.

Sunday, September 27, 2009

How to Install Drupal in ubuntu ?

>First we get drupal package :- 
We need to obtain our copy of Drupal so type in
“sudo wget”
this will download the Drupal file into your current directory.

> We need to unpack the files issue the command
“tar –zxvf drupal-6.13.tar.gz”
this will extract the files into a folder in your home directory

>We need to make a directory in the web root folder to keep the Drupal files in. To  do this type in
“sudo mkdir /var/www/drupal”

>We need to move the Drupal content over to the web folder. Type in
“sudo mv drupal-6.13/* drupal-6.13/.htaccess /var/www/drupal”

>We need to set up folders for media associated with the site to do this issue “sudo mkdir /var/www/drupal/sites/default/files”
“sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www/drupal/sites/default/files

>We need to copy and set the Drupal initial config file. To do this we first set copy the settings file by issuing
“sudo cp /var/www/drupal/sites/default/default.settings.php /var/www/drupal/sites/default/settings.php”

then we need to make sure this file is accessible by issuing the command

“sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www/drupal/sites/default/settings.php”

>NEXT  we install the following packages:-
apache2 ,php5-mysql, php5-gd ,libapache2-mod-php5 ,mysql-server
Using command on terminal " sudo apt-get install apache2 " similarly other packages

> Then Next we need to make sure there is a database in MySQL that Drupal can use.

Where drupal is the name you picked for the mysql database that Drupal will use. You can call it anything you want.
mysql -u root -p

mysql > create database drupal;
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, LOCK TABLES ON drupal.* TO 'drupaluser'@'localhost'
IDENTIFIED BY 'drupalpass';
Quit the mysql prompt:  
myspl> \q 
> Now we need to restart Apache to make sure the settings take effect.
 Type in “sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart”

Final Installation Settings

>open browser and type http://localhost/drupal/ or http://localhost/drupal/index.php 

Drupal now needs setting up, most of it is self explanatory but here are the steps:
1) Click on install Drupal in English
2) Type in the database name in this example it was called ‘Drupal’
3) Type in the username for the MySQL account for Drupal in this example it is ‘drupaluser’
4) Type in the password for the username in this example it is ‘drupalpass’
5) Enter in a site name I am calling my one ‘Intranet’
6) Site Email address is for whatever email address you want to associate with the site.
7) Type in an administrator name I will keep this straight forward and call it ‘Administrator’
8.) Choose and confirm the password for this user.
9) Choose the time zone you are located in.
10) Uncheck check for updates automatically. (I want it as it is then update it when I want to)
11) Save and continue
12) Then click on ‘your new site’.

For further information click on link >>>

Friday, September 18, 2009


What is Drupal ?

Drupal is a content management system that makes use of modules to allow site administrators to organize and display content, customize appearance and manage routine tasks, such as registration for websites requiring user names and passwords. One of Drupal's key characteristics is the fact that the entire Drupal framework is open source, meaning that the source code is available to anyone interested in working with it. The system itself is also free for all users, and while some web designers sell certain types of Drupal customization, many themes and modules are available for free as well.

Check 57 sec video

Some of the examples of projects that can be built from Drupal :- 

  • Community web portals
  • Discussion sites
  • Corporate web sites
  • Intranet applications
  • Personal web sites or blogs
  • Aficionado sites
  • E-commerce applications
  • Resource directories
  • Social Networking sites

Friday, August 14, 2009

Quick Notes


#rpm -ivh vsftp* --aid –force
#rpm -ivh creatrepo* --aid --force

#cp -var /mnt/Server /var/ftp

#createrepo -v /var/ftp/Server

#vim /etc/yum.repo.d/filename.repo



baseurl=file:///var/ftp/Server or



#yum clean all

#yum -y install package name


#yum install vsftp*

#mount /dev/cdrom

#mount /mnt


#ftp> get filename

#ftp >put filename

#vim /etc/vsftpd/vsftp.conf


#yum install samba*

#rpm -qa samba*

#smbpasswd -a username

#smbclient // -U pop

#mount -t cifs // /mnt -o username=pop

vim /etc/samba/smb.conf


path = /shared

valid users = pop

read list = pop

write list = rock

browseable = yes




#vim /etc/exports

/data *(rw,sync)

service portmap status

showmount -e Ipaddress


#Yum install http*

#vim /var/www/html/index.html

#mkdir station1 host1

#vim /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf


DocumentRoot /var/www/html/host1



DocumentRoot /var/www/html/station1


Mail Server

#yum install sendmail

#cd /etc/mail


:se nu

line number 116 comment this line

#m4 >

#vim /etc/xinetd.d/telnet

#telnet 25


mail from :

rcpt to :






#vim /etc/mail/access

#vim /etc/aliases

#vim /etc/dovecot.conf

TCP Warppers

#vim /etc/hosts.allow

#vim /etc/hosts.deny




IP Tables

#iptables -A INPUT _p tcp -s –dport 21 -j REJECT

#iptables -L

#iptables -F

#iptables -L –line -numbers

#iptables -D INPUT 2


#vim /etc/auto.master

/rhome/station1 /etc/auto.misc –timeout=120

#vim /etc/auto.misc

nisuser1 -rw,soft,intr


#yum install squid*

#vim /etc/squid/squid.conf

line number 2396,97

acl mylab src

acl page1 dstdomain

acl netime time MHF(monday/thrusday/friday 10.00-13.00

acl host17 dstdomain

acl pc16 scr

line 2527,28

http_access allow mylab

http_access deny page1

http_access deny/allow pc16 host17

Sunday, July 12, 2009

Backup , compressions, Automatic execution of commands

#du -sh dir name or file name ( to check size of file or directory )
# tar cvf filename .tar directory name (backup and compression done up to 40%-50%)
c- create
v - visual
f-file extension sport
# tar tf filename .tar ( to check the file )
#gzip -9 filename.tar ( high level compression and convert into file into .gz)

#tar zxvf filename.tar.gz ( decompress)

Automatic execution of commands
> first find path of command
#whereis command name
> then open crontab
#crontab -e
then add entry like this
*(for mintue) *(for hour) *( for date) *(for month ) *(for day of week 1-7)

44 19 12 7 7 /bin/reboot(path of commands)

save and exit

> then
# service crond restart

NFS( network file system)

>It is used to share the data between linux To linux system
>Sharing on the basis of IP address
>"ACL"( access control list) is defined the mange shared list
>configuration file is "/etc/exports"

Create The NFS
> First create check IP
#service network restart
#mii-tool ( to check the cable connected or not)
#lokkit ( to mange firewall)
> then define ACL
# vim /etc/exports

and add entry
example : /dirname,sync)

#chkconfig portmap on
#service nfs restart
#chkconfig nfs on
#showmount -e IP address
#mount /mnt

after mounting we can share the data

Friday, July 10, 2009


Quota is used to retrick the user for the space limit and number of file limits

quota has 2 limit
> soft limit (show warning only )
> hard limit (retrick the last limit)

Step to creating quota

> first create The partition using
# fdisk /dev/sda
#partprobe /dev/sda
> then format
#mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda5
> then create entery in fstab
#vim /etc/fstab
example :- /dev/sda5 /home ext3 defaults.usrquota 0 0
#mount -a
>refresh or restart the system
#mount -o remount /home
#ll /home
>then create database file
#quotacheck /home
>database file is "aquota user"
> then make active the file aquota use command
#quotaon -v /home
>then add user
#useradd username
#passwd -------
#ll /home
>then edit and gave the limits to user open file then add limits
#edquota username
> don't change intial reading
blocks = size
inodes= number of file limits
then give soft and hard limits
save and exit
and logout

then login to user and check limits and its work or not
#repquota -av

Remove quota
>first delet user
#umount /home
>remove entery to fstab
#vim /etc/fstab
#mount -a
>then delet partition
#fdisk /dev/sda

Saturday, July 4, 2009

LVM( logical Volume Managment )

Create a LVM

>first create Three Partition

>change ID of created partitions 83 to 8e

#partprobe /dev/sda
> create LAYER 1

#pvcreate /dev/sda5 /dev/sda6 /dev/sda7

#pvdisplay |less

> Create LAYER 2

#vgcreate volume1 /dev/sda5 /dev/sda6 /dev/sda7


> create LAYER 3

#lvcreate -l 25GB -n logical1 volume1

> format partition
#mkfs.ext /dev/volume1/logical1

#mkdir /dirname

#vim /etc/fstab

/dev/volume1/logical1 /dirname ext3 defaults 0 0

#mount -a
#df -TH

> How to extend the LVM?


if free space is there then uses command:-

# lvextend -L +10GB -n /dev/volume1/logical1

> then online format

#resize2fs /dev/volume1/logical1

otherwise create partition and change ID of partition

#partprobe /dev/sda

#pvcreate /dev/sda8

#vgextend volume1 /dev/sda8


#lvextend -L 10GB -n /dev/volume1/logical1

#resize2fs /dev/volume1/logical1

#df -TH


#df -TH

#umount /dirname

Remove fstab entry

#vim /etc/fstab

#mount -a

#lvremove /dev/volume1/logical1

#vgremove /dev/volume1

#fdisk -l

#pvremove /dev/sda5 /dev/sda6 /dev/sda7 /dev/sda8

then delete the partitons

Friday, July 3, 2009


It is basicaly a file system use to manage data over multiple harddisk with and without backup depending upon the level of RAID (0,1,5)

The principle of raid is to use same make and model of harddisk.

How to create RAID ?

> first create three partitions

> then change TD from 83 to fd

> now create RAID by using these commands:

#mdadm -C /dev/md0 -l 5 -n 3 /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdc

> to check the details

#mdadm -D /dev/md0

> to watch online status of RAID

# watch cat /proc/mdstat

> now formatting the RAID partition

# mkfs.ext3 /dev/md0

> then make directory

# mkdir /dirname

> for permanent mounting add entry in fstab

# vim /etc/fstab
for eg. /dev/md0 /dirname ext3 defaults 0 0

# mount -a

> to show the RAID partition :

# df -TH


> first to make faulty the partition

# mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/sdb ( this command is to use only to make faulty the partiton )

> then remove the faulty partition

# mdadm /dev/md0 -r /dev/sdb

> now create a new partition then add this partition on RAID

#mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sdd

Create and Delete partitions in Linux system

Installation of REDHAT LINUX

Select option of Custom Layout and then
Make the three partitions in your free hardisk :-
1) /boot ( containing booting files ) Size= 100MB approx.
2) / (System files ) Size= 3 -10GB
3) Swap (virtual memory ) Size = Double of RAM

Creating Partitions

First check the Hard disk free space using command
#fdisk -l
Then create a partitions following commands and steps
#fdisk /dev/sda(if you have sata hard disk ) or /hda (if you have pata hard disk)

[""(then display)
The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 77520.
There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
and could in certain setups cause problems with:
1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs

Command (m for help):

Press n to create partition

first create extended partition

By press e

then create logical drives with different size

To refresh the commonds partition use command

#partprobe /dev/sda

then format it

#mkfs.ext3 /dev/sda5( "5" is your drive number)

Then create mount point first make directory

#mkdir /directoryname

#mount /dev/sda5 /directoryname

then edit entry in fstab by

#vim /etc/fstab

then edit entry

for ex:- /dev/sda5 /dirname ext3 defaults 0 0

then save and exit form vim editor

#mount -a

Delete partition

first check the name of directory name &then
#umount /dirname
#vim /etc/fstab
delete entry from fstab

#mount -a

and delete partiton in
#fdisk /dev/sda

Sunday, June 21, 2009


We Started the redhat linux training in chandigarh
I will try to update my training

Monday, May 25, 2009

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


2) Beauty is not on the face but lies in the eyes of observer!!!

3) ਜਿਨਾ ਨੂੰ ਲੱਗੇ ਅਸੀ ਚੰਗੇ ਉਨਾ ਦਾ ਧੰਨਵਾਦ, ਜਿਨਾ ਨੂੰ ਲੱਗੇ ਮਾੜੇ ਉਨਾ ਨੂੰ ਪਿਆਰ ਹਾਜ਼ਰ ਹੈ..
ਜਿਨਾ ਸਾਡੇ ਨਾਲ ਵੰਡਾਏ ਦੁਖ ਉਹ ਯਾਰ ਸਾਡੇ, ਜਿਨਾ ਨੇ ਦਿਤੇ ਦੁਖ ਉਨਾ ਲਈ ਵੀ ਜਾਨ ਹਾਜਰ ਹੈ..
ਚੰਗਾ ਮਾੜਾ ਹੌਵੇ ਕਿਸੇ ਨੂੰ ਕਿਹਾ ਤਾ ਕਰੀਉ ਮਾਫ ਯਾਰੌ, ਜਿਨਾ ਨੇ ਲੈਣੇ ਸਾਡੇ ਤੌ ਬਦਲੇ ਉਨਾ ਲਈ ਗੁਨਾਹਗਾਰ ਹਾਜਰ ਹੈ...

4) ਜਿੰਦਗੀ ਦੇ ਸਫਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਦੋਸਤ ਤਾਂ ਬਹੁਤ ਮਿਲਦੇ ਪਰ ਦਿਲੋਂ ਬਣਦਾ ਕੋਈ ਕੋਈ। ਚਿਰਾਗ ਤਾਂ ਸਾਰੇ ਰੌਸ਼ਨੀ ਕਰਦੇ ਨੇ
ਪਰ ਦਿਲ ਦੇ ਹਨੇਰੇ ਦੂਰ ਕਰਦਾ ਕੋਈ ਕੋਈ। ਕੋਈ ਨਾ ਕੋਈ ਗਲਤੀ ਤਾਂ ਹਰ ਕੋਈ ਇਨਸਾਨ ਕਰਦਾ
ਪਰ ਗਲਤੀ ਕਰਕੇ ਮੰਨਣ ਦੀ ਹਿੰਮਤ ਕਰਦਾ ਕੋਈ ਕੋਈ।ਸੁੱਖ ਵੇਲੇ ਤਾਂ ਬਹੁਤ ਦੋਸਤ ਬਣਦੇ ਦੁੱਖ ਵੇਲੇ ਨਾਲ ਖੜਦਾ ਕੋਈ ਕੋਈ।
ਵਾਆਦੇ ਤਾਂ ਦੂਜੇ ਨੂੰ ਜਾਨ ਦੇਣ ਦੇ ਹਰ ਕੋਈ ਕਰ ਦਿੰਦਾ ਪਰ ਲੋੜ ਪੈਣ ਤੇ ਜਾਨ ਦਿੰਦਾ ਕੋਈ ਕੋਈ

5) I was born alone I will die alone......

6) ਰੋਮ - ਰੋਮ ਵਿਚ ਰਚਿਆ ਪਾਣੀ ਪੰਜ ਦਰਿਆਵਾਂ ਦਾ..

7) Watch your thoughts, they become your words;
Watch your words, they become your actions;
Watch your actions, they become your habits;
Watch your habits, they become your character;
Watch your becomes your destiny.

8) Go confidently in the direction of your dreams! Live the life you've imagined

9) किताबों के पनें पलट कर देखता हूँ........ यूँ पलट जाए मेरी ज़िंदगी तो कया बात होगी......
अपने ज़िंदा रहने तक तो दूँगा खुशी सबको ...... किसी को मेरी मौत पर हो जाए तो कया बात होगी........
सपनों में नानक रोज़ मिलते हैं ....... हकीकत में आएँ तो कया बात होगी .......

10) The greatest essentials to happiness in this life are something to do,
something to love and something to hope for.

11) Dreams are easy to see but harder to make truth!!

12) ਮੇਰੋ ਸੁੰਦਰੁ ਕਹਹੁ ਮਿਲੈ ਕਿਤੁ ਗਲੀ ॥ ਹਰਿ ਕੇ ਸੰਤ ਬਤਾਵਹੁ ਮਾਰਗੁ ਹਮ ਪੀਛੈ ਲਾਗਿ ਚਲੀ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥ ਪ੍ਰਿਅ ਕੇ ਬਚਨ ਸੁਖਾਨੇ ਹੀਅਰੈ ਇਹ ਚਾਲ ਬਨੀ ਹੈ ਭਲੀ ॥ ਲਟੁਰੀ ਮਧੁਰੀ ਠਾਕੁਰ ਭਾਈ ਓਹ ਸੁੰਦਰਿ ਹਰਿ ਢੁਲਿ ਮਿਲੀ ॥੧॥ ਏਕੋ ਪ੍ਰਿਉ ਸਖੀਆ ਸਭ ਪ੍ਰਿਅ ਕੀ ਜੋ ਭਾਵੈ ਪਿਰ ਸਾ ਭਲੀ ॥ ਨਾਨਕੁ ਗਰੀਬੁ ਕਿਆ ਕਰੈ ਬਿਚਾਰਾ ਹਰਿ ਭਾਵੈ ਤਿਤੁ ਰਾਹਿ ਚਲੀ ॥

13)ਸੱਚੇ ਰੱਬ ਨਾਲ ਇਸ਼ਕ ਕਰੇ ਕੋਈ ਕੋਈ, ਸ਼ੋਹਰਤ ਨਾਲ ਇਸ਼ਕ ਹਰ ਕੋਈ ਕਰਦਾ ਹੈ‌ ‌‌ ਸਾਂਵਲੇ ਰੰਗ ਨੂੰ ਪਸੰਦ ਕਰੇ ਕੋਈ ਕੋਈ, ਗੋਰੇ ਰੰਗ ਉੱਤੇ ਹਰ ਕੋਈ ਮਰਦਾ ਹੈ |    
14) ਹਥ ਕਾਰ ਵਲ ਦਿਲ ਯਾਰ ਵਲ

Sunday, April 5, 2009

Create windows entery in grub boot loader

first of all you need to execute one command in the terminal and that is this...

$ sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
the text file is open and this have information about boot loader

you can write these in file

title Windows XP
root (hd0,1)
chainloader +1

after this save the file and close .
you can boot in either linux or windows


>> boot from the linux's LIVE cd without making any changes to your system and any of your partitions.

>> open up the terminal AND TYPE COMMAND
sudo fdisk -l

and check the linux system in it
if linux is there then type next command

$ sudo grub
-find /boot/grub/stage1

- root (hdx,y)
- setup (hdx)
- quit
- exit

thats all you need to and you will get you linux back and your window will be there too....

Sunday, March 8, 2009

C++ program

// Transform a string into ASCII code

void main()
char a[32];
int x = 0;

cout << " enter the word \n";

cin >> a;

cout << "The ASCII for this word is:\n"; while (word[x] != '\0') { cout <<>

Wednesday, February 25, 2009

crossover linux professional ( run .EXE Ffiles on linux)

CrossOver Linux Professional allows you to install your favorite Windows office applications in Linux. In particular CrossOver Linux Professional supports Microsoft Office 97, 2000, XP and 2003 which includes Word, Excel, Outlook and PowerPoint. CrossOver Linux Professional also supports Microsoft Visio, Lotus Notes, Adobe Photoshop, and several other packages. 

CrossOver Linux Professional delivers a complete web browsing experience by making the full range of Windows Web Browser Plugins available on Linux. Plugins are programs that extend the capabilities of a browser or email client -- for example, to play movies or view Word documents. 

CrossOver works by running the actual Windows applications. Because no CPU emulation is involved they run at full speed on your system. They also integrate with your mail client and desktop environment, making it possible to view Word, Excel or PowerPoint attachments, or to open these file types from the KDE or Gnome desktop or file managers. CrossOver Linux Professional further acts as a bridge between the native browser (e.g. Mozilla) and Windows plugins (e.g. QuickTime) so that you can use them in your favorite browser.

Tuesday, February 24, 2009

program to inter lines in files in read and write the lines for file!

int main()
ofstream fout;"gne.txt");
char ch[50];
int len,count=0,sp=0,line=0;

fout<<"guru nanak dev engg. college \n ludhiana \n bracnh \n d2IT ";


ifstream fin;"gne.txt");




cout< len=strlen(ch);

for(int i=0;i<=len;i++)

{ if(ch[i]=='  ')


cout"number  of  spaces"  sp;

cout"number of  charater" count;



cout<<" \n No.lines= " lines;


return (0);


Sunday, February 15, 2009


What is Lex?

Lex is officially known as a "Lexical Analyser".

It's main job is to break up an input stream into more usable elements.

Or in, other words, to identify the "interesting bits" in a text file.

For example, if you are writing a compiler for the C programming language, the symbols { } ( ) ; all have significance on their own. The letter a usually appears as part of a keyword or variable name, and is not interesting on it's own. Instead, we are interested in the whole word. Spaces and newlines are completely uninteresting, and we want to ignore them completely, unless they appear within quotes "like this"

All of these things are handled by the Lexical Analyser.

What is Yacc?

Yacc is officially known as a "parser".

It's job is to analyse the structure of the input stream, and operate of the "big picture".

In the course of it's normal work, the parser also verifies that the input is syntactically sound.

Consider again the example of a C-compiler. In the C-language, a word can be a function name or a variable, depending on whether it is followed by a ( or a = There should be exactly one } for each { in the program.

YACC stands for "Yet Another Compiler Compiler". This is because this kind of analysis of text files is normally associated with writing compilers.

However, as we will see, it can be applied to almost any situation where text-based input is being used.

For example, a C program may contain something like:

        {                 int int;                 int = 33;                 printf("int: %d\n",int);         }

In this case, the lexical analyser would have broken the input sream into a series of "tokens", like this:

        {         int         int         ;         int         =         33         ;         printf         (         "int: %d\n"         ,         int         )         ;         }

Note that the lexical analyser has already determined that where the keyword int appears within quotes, it is really just part of a litteral string. It is up to the parser to decide if the token int is being used as a keyword or variable. Or it may choose to reject the use of the name int as a variable name. The parser also ensures that each statement ends with a ; and that the brackets balance.

Lex and yacc are tools for building programs. Their output is itself code, which needs to be fed into a compiler; typically, additional user code is added to use the code generated by lex and/or yacc. Some simple programs can get by on almost no additional code; others use a parser as a tiny portion of a much larger and more complicated program.

Wednesday, February 11, 2009

Internet Protocol

The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite, also referred

DEFINITION - The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. Each computer (known as a host) on the Internet has at least one IP address that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the Internet. When you send or receive data (for example, an e-mail note or a Web page), the message gets divided into little chunks called packets. Each of these packets contains both the sender's Internet address and the receiver's address. Any packet is sent first to a gateway computer that understands a small part of the Internet. The gateway computer reads the destination address and forwards the packet to an adjacent gateway that in turn reads the destination address and so forth across the Internet until one gateway recognizes the packet as belonging to a computer within its immediate neighborhood or domain. That gateway then forwards the packet directly to the computer whose address is specified.

Because a message is divided into a number of packets, each packet can, if necessary, be sent by a different route across the Internet. Packets can arrive in a different order than the order they were sent in. The Internet Protocol just delivers them. It's up to another protocol, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to put them back in the right order

IP is a connectionless protocol, which means that there is no continuing connection between the end points that are communicating. Each packet that travels through the Internet is treated as an independent unit of data without any relation to any other unit of data. (The reason the packets do get put in the right order is because of TCP, the connection-oriented protocol that keeps track of the packet sequence in a message.) In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communication model, IP is in layer 3, the Networking Layer.

The most widely used version of IP today is Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4). However, IP Version 6 (IPv6) is also beginning to be supported. IPv6 provides for much longer addresses and therefore for the possibility of many more Internet users. IPv6 includes the capabilities of IPv4 and any server that can support IPv6 packets can also support IPv4 packets.

The Internet Protocol Suite

The Internet Protocol Suite (commonly known as TCP/IP) is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It is named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard.

Tuesday, February 10, 2009

nine UML Diagrams

UML Diagrams

The underlying premise of UML is that no one diagram can capture the different elements of a system in its entirety. Hence, UML is made up of nine diagrams that can be used to model a system at different points of time in the software life cycle of a system. The nine UML diagrams are:

  • Use case diagram: The use case diagram is used to identify the primary elements and processes that form the system. The primary elements are termed as "actors" and the processes are called "use cases." The use case diagram shows which actors interact with each use case.
  • Class diagram: The class diagram is used to refine the use case diagram and define a detailed design of the system. The class diagram classifies the actors defined in the use case diagram into a set of interrelated classes. The relationship or association between the classes can be either an "is-a" or "has-a" relationship. Each class in the class diagram may be capable of providing certain functionalities. These functionalities provided by the class are termed "methods" of the class. Apart from this, each class may have certain "attributes" that uniquely identify the class.
  • Object diagram: The object diagram is a special kind of class diagram. An object is an instance of a class. This essentially means that an object represents the state of a class at a given point of time while the system is running. The object diagram captures the state of different classes in the system and their relationships or associations at a given point of time.
  • State diagram: A state diagram, as the name suggests, represents the different states that objects in the system undergo during their life cycle. Objects in the system change states in response to events. In addition to this, a state diagram also captures the transition of the object's state from an initial state to a final state in response to events affecting the system.
  • Activity diagram: The process flows in the system are captured in the activity diagram. Similar to a state diagram, an activity diagram also consists of activities, actions, transitions, initial and final states, and guard conditions.
  • Sequence diagram: A sequence diagram represents the interaction between different objects in the system. The important aspect of a sequence diagram is that it is time-ordered. This means that the exact sequence of the interactions between the objects is represented step by step. Different objects in the sequence diagram interact with each other by passing "messages".
  • Collaboration diagram: A collaboration diagram groups together the interactions between different objects. The interactions are listed as numbered interactions that help to trace the sequence of the interactions. The collaboration diagram helps to identify all the possible interactions that each object has with other objects.
  • Component diagram: The component diagram represents the high-level parts that make up the system. This diagram depicts, at a high level, what components form part of the system and how they are interrelated. A component diagram depicts the components culled after the system has undergone the development or construction phase.
  • Deployment diagram: The deployment diagram captures the configuration of the runtime elements of the application. This diagram is by far most useful when a system is built and ready to be deployed.

UML Diagram Classification—Static, Dynamic, and Implementation

A software system can be said to have two distinct characteristics: a structural, "static" part and a behavioral, "dynamic" part. In addition to these two characteristics, an additional characteristic that a software system possesses is related to implementation. Before we categorize UML diagrams into each of these three characteristics, let us take a quick look at exactly what these characteristics are.

  • Static: The static characteristic of a system is essentially the structural aspect of the system. The static characteristics define what parts the system is made up of.
  • Dynamic: The behavioral features of a system; for example, the ways a system behaves in response to certain events or actions are the dynamic characteristics of a system.
  • Implementation: The implementation characteristic of a system is an entirely new feature that describes the different elements required for deploying a system.

The UML diagrams that fall under each of these categories are:

  • Static
    • Use case diagram
    • Class diagram
  • Dynamic
    • Object diagram
    • State diagram
    • Activity diagram
    • Sequence diagram
    • Collaboration diagram
  • Implementation
    • Component diagram
    • Deployment diagram

windows is uninstall , ubuntu is in some drive but ubuntu is not boot up ??

>>Put LIVE Disk in driver
>> click on try ubuntu
>> open terminal
>> write commmands
$ sudo grub
grub> root (hd0,6)
setup (hd0)

then restart